Lesson 6 - Nominal Sentence

1) Is there a difference between using hal (هَلْ) and a’ (أَ)?

At this level, no in the nominal sentence there is no difference between the two. However, there are some tendencies toward using one of the other depending on the subject. For example if the subject begins with an alif lām it is common to use hal so that there isn’t a long alif sound created (although in some cases this occurs). On the other hand when beginning a sentence with a pronoun that begins with hamzah, such as ‘anta, it is common to use a’.

2) If adjectives are added to the nominal sentence, how can I keep track of the subject and predicate?

Remember that typically the subject is definite and the predicate is indefinite and adjectives copy these aspects from the words they are describing. So make sure you pay attention to the tanwīn and alif lām on the words in the nominal sentence.

Lesson 10 - Verbal Sentence

1) What happens if the verb comes after the subject?

This is technically not considered a verbal sentence anymore, and we will learn more about this in Level 2. The sentence would still be considered valid in Arabic, but it can no longer be classified as “verbal sentence.” In order for a sentence to qualify as a verbal sentence, the verb must precede its subject.

2) When pronouns are used with prepositions do the changes always have to take place, i.e. ḍammah on the attached pronouns changing to kasrah for certain pronouns?

This should be done as a default rule, although there are some exceptional cases in the Qur’an where the ḥarakat do not change when the preposition is attached.