1) What happens if the verb comes after the subject?
This is technically not considered a verbal sentence anymore, and we will learn more about this in Level 2. The sentence would still be considered valid in Arabic, but it can no longer be classified as “verbal sentence.” In order for a sentence to qualify as a verbal sentence, the verb must precede its subject.
2) When pronouns are used with prepositions do the changes always have to take place, i.e. ḍammah on the attached pronouns changing to kasrah for certain pronouns?
This should be done as a default rule, although there are some exceptional cases in the Qur’an where the ḥarakat do not change when the preposition is attached.